The 1st Armored Division's commitment to the civic and military values for which "Old
Ironsides" has been renowned for half a century (patriotism, discipline, readiness, self-sacrifice, combined arms cooperation,
shock action, decisiveness, and generosity in victory) remains relentlessly strong today.
The distinctive insignia
of the 1st Armored Division is drawn in bold colors characteristic of the division. The insignia is designed from the triangular
coat-of-arms of the American World War II Tank Corps. The yellow, blue, and red colors of the shoulder sleeve insignia represent
the combined arms nature of the armored division (Armor, Infantry, and Artillery).
Superimposed on the triangle is
the insignia of the former Seventh Cavalry Brigade (Mechanized), the predecessors of the Old Ironsides. The tank track represents
mobility and armor protection, the gun denotes firepower, and the chain of lightening symbolizes speed and shock action. Mobility,
firepower, and shock action are the basic attributes of Armor.
The Arabic numeral in the apex of the triangle indicates
the First Armor Division. The nickname of the division, officially sanctioned by the Department of the Army is emblazoned
under the triangle and is an integral part of the insignia.
Old Ironsides Designation
Soon after the activation
of the 1st Armored Division at Fort Knox on July 15, 1940, its first commander, Major General Bruce R. Magruder, began searching
for an appropriate nickname for the division.
In 1941 General George S. Patton Jr. had just named his 2nd Armored Division
"Hell on Wheels" and everyone thought that the 1st Armored Division needed a name too. General Bruce Magruder, the Commander
of the 1st Armored Division, announced a contest to find a suitable name for his Division. Approximately 200 names were submitted
including "Fire and Brimstone" and "Kentucky Wonders." The General took them home to study over the weekend but failed to
find any that appealed to him.While mulling the matter over, he happened to glance at a picture of the U.S.S. Constitution
that he had bought during a drive for funds for the preservation of that famous fighting ship known as "Old Ironsides. Impressed
with the parallel between the early development of the tank and the Navy's "Old Ironsides" spirit of daring and durability
he decided the 1st Armored Division should also be named "Old Ironsides." Thus a famous warship of the US Navy and the famous
1st Armored Division of the US Army are historically and appropriately welded by name "Old Ironsides." "That ended the search
for a name. The 1st Armored Division became "Old Ironsides" that same day and forty months of fighting later testified that
its name was well chosen. This was a fighting Division.
As part of Operation Torch, the Allied invasion
of French Northwest Africa, November 8, 1942. In doing so, Old Ironsides became the first American Armored Division to see
combat. Although encountering unexpectedly heavy Vichy-French opposition, the Allied invasion force suppressed all resistance
in the beachhead within three days.
The Division then advanced toward Tunisia where it clashed with Axis forces and
learned many hard lessons in armored warfare. Harsh conditions and primitive roads spoiled an early opportunity to capture
Tunisia and cut off Rommel's supply lines.
January 1943 found the Division under control of the II Corps. Old Ironsides
received the mission of defending central Tunisia against an Axis counterattack. A month later, the 1st Armored Division collided
with a superior German armored force at Kasserine Pass. Sustaining heavy personnel and equipment losses, Old Ironsides withdrew,
battered but wiser. Outrunning his supply lines and facing stiffening Allied resistance, Rommel's advance ground to a halt.
Regardless, three more months of fierce fighting followed before the Allies could finally claim victory in North Africa.
25 March 1944, Private Nicholas Minue, Company A, 6th Armored Infantry, 1st Armored Division, was awarded the Congressional
Medal of Honor for gallantry and intrepidity at the loss of his life above and beyond the call of duty in action with the
enemy on 28 April 1943 in the vicinity of MedjezelBab, Tunisia.
The fall of Sicily in the summer of 1943
cleared the way for an Allied Invasion of the Italian mainland. As part of General Mark Clark's Fifth Army, the 1st Armored
Division crushed enemy resistance in an assault landing at Salerno on September 9, and led the drive to Naples. The city fell
on October 1, and the Allies pressed onto the Volturno River.
In November, the 1st Armored Division attacked the infamous
Winter Line. Although breaching the line, the Allied advance came to a halt in the mountainous country near Cassino. To break
the stalemate, the Allies made an amphibious assault well behind enemy lines at Anzio on January 23, 1944. Beating back repeated
German counterattacks, the 1st Armored Division led the Allied breakout from the beachead on May 23, and spearheaded the drive
to Rome, liberating the city on June 4.
The 1st Armored Division continued its pursuit of the enemy to the North Apennies
where the Germans made their last stand. Rugged mountains and winter weather now stood between the Allies and the open land
of the Po Valley. The 1st Armored Division broke into the valley in April 1945 and on May 2, 1945, German forces in Italy
In June 1945 the 1st Armored Division was transferred to Germany to serve as part of the Allied
occupation forces. Old Ironsides returned to the United States in April 1946 and was inactivated at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey.
Several of the Division's Units, however, remained in Germany as part of the U.S. Constabulary.
The success of the
Russian made T-34 Tank at the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950 brought renewed enthusiasm for armor. As part of the Korean
War build up of American forces, the 1st Armored Division was reactivated at Fort Hood, Texas on March 7, 1951.
its tradition of "firsts", Old Ironsides became one of the first divisions in the Army to integrate black soldiers throughout
the ranks. It was also the only combat-ready armored division in the continental United States and the first to receive the
M48 Patton Tank.
Training for nuclear war became a major theme in the mid-1950s. Accordingly, the 1st Armored Division
participated in tests of the "Atomic Field Army" at Fort Hood and in Operation Sagebrush, the largest joint maneuver conducted
since World War II. Upon completion of the exercise in February 1956, the 1st Armored Division moved to its new home at Fort
Toward the end of the 1950s, the Army's preoccupation with a nuclear battlefield waned.
The Army experienced years of austere budgets. Reduced in size and moved back to Fort Hood, the 1st Armored Division reverted
to a training cadre for new inductees. The start of the 1960s, however, inaugurated a period of military renewal. Important
changes in organization, doctrine, and equipment stemmed from the realization that the Army must be prepared to fight anytime,
In 1962, the 1st Armored Division was brought back to full strength and reorganized. Brigades replaced Combat
Commands, and the Division's aviation assets doubled.
Intense training followed the reorganization. In October 1962
the 1st Armored Division was declared combat ready, just in time for the Cuban Missile Crisis. In response to the Soviet stationing
of missiles in Cuba, Old Ironsides deployed from Fort Hood, Texas to Fort Stewart. The entire operation took just 18 days.
For the next six weeks, the 1st Armored Division conducted live-fire training and amphibious exercises on the Georgia
and Florida coasts. One highlight was a visit from President John F. Kennedy on November 26, 1962.
tensions eased and the 1st Armored Division returned to Ft. Hood.
Although the 1st Armored Division did
not participate as a Division in the Vietnam War, two units, Company A, 501st Aviation and 1st Squadron, 1st Calvary served
with distinction. Both earned Presidential Unit Citations, and 1-1 Cavalry received two Valorous Unit Awards and three Vietnamese
Crosses of Gallantry. Neither unit was officially detached from the 1st Armored Division and veterans of both units may wear
the Old Ironsides as a combat patch.
In addition, in 1967 the 198th Infantry Brigade was formed from three of the
Division's Infantry Battalions and deployed from Fort Hood to Vietnam. After the war, two of the three battalions, 1-6 Infantry
and 1-52 Infantry, returned to the 1st Armored Division.
1968 was a crisis-filled year of domestic unrest. After the
assassination of Martin Luther King, several inner cities exploded into violence. The 3rd Brigade deployed to Chicago to assist
in restoring order.
The early 1970's brought the withdrawal of American Forces from Vietnam and a major restructuring
of the Army. Old Ironsides was rumored to be on the list of units to be inactivated. Veterans of the Division organized a
letter-writing campaign to "save" the 1st Armored Division. Their efforts were rewarded when on May 10, 1971, 1st Armored
Division left its home at Fort Hood, Texas to replace the 4th Armored Division in Germany.
On 9 November 1967, Captain
(then First Lieutenant) James Allen Taylor, Troop B, 1st Cavalry, Americal Division, was awarded the Congressional Medal of
Honor for his valor in contributing to the success of the assault on an enemy position and saving the lives of a number of
his fellow soldiers.
DESERT SHIELD/DESERT STORM
Old Ironsides marched into its second half century celebrating
victory in the Cold War - a triumph symbolized by the fall of the Berlin Wall, the unification of Germany, and the crumbling
of East European, communist regimes.
Almost immediately the 1st Armored Division was called upon to meet a new challenge.
In November 1990 it was alerted for deployment to the Middle East in response to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. In less than
two months the Division moved 17,400 soldiers and 7,050 pieces of equipment by rail, sea, and air to Saudi Arabia for Operation
Desert Shield/Storm. The Division's own 1st Brigade stayed in Germany and was replaced by 3d Brigade, 3d Infantry Division.
On February 24, 1991, the 1st Armored Division crossed into Iraq leading VII Corp's main flanking attack - its mission
to destroy the elite, Iraqi Republican Guards Divisions. In its 89-hour blitz across the desert Old Ironsides traveled 250
kilometers; destroyed 768 tanks, APCs and artillery pieces; and captured 1,064 prisoners of war. Four 1st Armored Division
soldiers made the ultimate sacrifice in this historic effort.
Old Ironsides marked its successful return to Germany
on May 8, 1991, when MG Griffith uncased the Division Colors in Ansbach. The 1st Armored Division celebrated its triumph with
a visit from the Vice President of the United States and attendance at victory parades in Washington, D.C. and New York City.
TASK FORCE EAGLE
On December 14, 1995, the 1st Armored Division was ordered to Bosnia-Herzegovina as part of Operation
Joint Endeavor. This task force, known as Task Force Eagle, assumed control of its area of responsibility during a transfer
of authority ceremony with United Nations forces at Eagle Base, Tulza on December 20, 1995.
After the historic bridging
of the Sava River on December 31, 1995, the Old Ironsides Division, with supporting forces from the 5th U.S. Corps, was joined
by Nordic-Polish, Turkish, and Russian brigades - in total - 12 Nations: Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania,
Norway, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Turkey, and the United States.
Task Force Eagle, one of the most powerful formations
ever fielded, enforced the cease-fire, supervised the marking of boundaries and the zone of separation between the former
warring factions, enforced withdrawal of the combatants, and the movement of the heavy weapons to designated storage sites.
Task Force Eagle also supported the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe's efforts to administer the
country's first ever democratic national elections.
On November 10, 1996, the 1st Armored Division transferred authority
for command and control of Task Force Eagle to the 1st Infantry Division. The 1st Infantry Division deployed as a covering
force to allow the safe return of the 1st Armored Division to Germany.
In April 1999, the 1st Armored Division
was alerted to send soldier to Albania as part of Operation Allied Force in response to the ethnic cleansing and fighting
in Kosovo. The 1st Armored Division then sent the first soldiers into Kosovo in operation Joint Guardian to uphold the United
Nations Security Council resolution to bring peace back to the Kosovo region.
On June 20, 2000, the 1st Armored Division
took over the mission as the U.S. contingent in Kosovo assuming control of the Multinational Brigade - East, and continues
to bring a lasting peace and stability to the region and help build the infrastructure for all in Kosovo.